After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma—and the Empire of Japan was established.
Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8 and the G20—and is considered a great power.
The country has the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity.
The message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. Another form Wei (委) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty.
The English word Japan possibly derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本.
From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor.
Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West.The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang.At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country.Countries like Japan whose long form does not contain a descriptive designation are generally given a name appended by the character koku A Paleolithic culture around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of the Japanese archipelago.This was followed from around 14,000 BC (the start of the Jōmon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture, Decorated clay vessels from this period are some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world.Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world.